Naučite Bootstrap 4 za 30 minuta izradom web stranice odredišne ​​stranice

Vodič za početnike

„Bootstrap je besplatna front-end biblioteka otvorenog koda za dizajniranje web stranica i web aplikacija. Sadrži predloške dizajna temeljene na HTML-u i CSS-u za sve, od tipografije, obrazaca, gumba, navigacije i ostalih komponenti sučelja, kao i JavaScript proširenja. Za razliku od mnogih drugih web okvira, Bootstrap se bavi samo front-end razvojem. " - WikipediaPozdrav, prije nego što započnemo, provjeri moju cijelu klasu kako bi naučio Bootstrap 4, gdje ćeš naučiti nove značajke bootstrapa i kako ih koristiti za izgradnju boljeg korisničkog iskustva.

Postoji mnogo verzija Bootstrapa, a verzija 4 je najnovija. U ovom ćemo članku izraditi web stranicu pomoću Bootstrapa 4.

Preduvjeti

Prije početka postoje neke vještine koje morate znati kako biste naučili i koristili Bootstrap okvir:

  • Osnove HTML-a
  • osnovno znanje CSS-a
  • i neki osnovni JQuery

Sadržaj

Tijekom izrade web stranice pokrivat ćemo teme u nastavku:

  • Preuzimanje i instaliranje Bootstrapa 4
  • Nove značajke Bootstrapa 4
  • Bootstrap Grid sustav
  • Navbar
  • Zaglavlje
  • Gumbi
  • O odjeljku
  • Odjeljak portfelja
  • Blog odjeljak
  • Kartice
  • Timski odjel
  • Kontakt obrazac
  • Krstionica
  • Učinak pomicanja
  • Zaključak

Preuzimanje i instaliranje Bootstrapa 4

Postoje tri načina za instalaciju i uključivanje Bootstrapa 4 za vaš projekt:

  1. Koristite npm

Izvođenjem ove naredbe možete instalirati Bootstrap 4 npm install bootstrap

2. Koristite mrežu za isporuku sadržaja (CDN)

Uključivanjem ove veze u svoj projekt između oznaka glave:

3. Preuzmite knjižnicu Bootstrap 4 i koristite je lokalno.

Struktura našeg projekta trebala bi izgledati ovako:

Nove značajke Bootstrapa 4

Što je novo u Bootstrapu 4? A što se razlikuje između Bootstrapa 3 i 4?

Bootstrap 4 sada dolazi s nevjerojatnim značajkama koje nisu postojale u posljednjoj verziji:

  • Bootstrap 4 napisan je pomoću Flexbox Grid, dok je Bootstrap 3 napisan metodom float.

    Ako ste novi u Flexboxu, pogledajte ovaj vodič.

  • Bootstrap 4 koristi remCSS jedinice, dok Bootstrap 3 koristi px.

    Pogledajte kako se te dvije jedinice razlikuju.

  • Paneli, sličice i bušotine u potpunosti su ispušteni.

    Ovdje možete detaljno pročitati više o globalnim promjenama i uklonjenim značajkama Bootstrapa 4.

Bez da ovdje previše uskačemo u detalje, prijeđimo na neke druge važne stvari.

Sustav Bootstrap Grid

Sustav Bootstrap Grid pomaže vam u izradi izgleda i jednostavnoj izradi responzivnog web mjesta. Nije bilo promjena u imenima klasa, osim .xsklase koja više ne postoji u Bootstrapu 4.

Rešetka je podijeljena u 12 stupaca, pa će se vaš raspored temeljiti na tome.

Da biste koristili mrežni sustav, morat ćete dodati .rowklasu u glavni div .

col-lg-2 // class used for large devices like laptops col-md-2 // class used for medium devices like tablets col-sm-2// class used for small devices like mobile phones

Navbar

Omotač navbar-a prilično je cool u Bootstrapu 4. Toliko je korisno kada je u pitanju izgradnja responzivne navbar-a.

Da bismo je dobili, dodat ćemo navbarklasu u našu index.htmldatoteku:

  Home 
    
  • About
  • Portfolio
  • Blog
  • Team
  • Contact

Stvorite i uključite main.cssdatoteku tako da možete prilagoditi CSS stil.

Stavite ovo unutar headoznake u index.htmldatoteku:

Dodajmo nekoliko boja na našu traku za navigaciju:

.navbar{ background:#F97300;} .nav-link , .navbar-brand{ color: #f4f4f4; cursor: pointer;} .nav-link{ margin-right: 1em !important;} .nav-link:hover{ background: #f4f4f4; color: #f97300; } .navbar-collapse{ justify-content: flex-end;} .navbar-toggler{ background:#fff !important;}

Nova Bootstrap Grid izgrađena je s Flexbox sustavom, tako da za poravnanje morate koristiti Flexbox svojstvo. Na primjer, za postavljanje navigacijskog izbornika s desne strane moramo dodati justify-contentsvojstvo i postaviti ga na flex-end.

.navbar-collapse{ justify-content: flex-end; }

Dodajte .fixed-topklasu na navigacijsku traku kako biste joj dali fiksni položaj.

Da biste osvjetlili boju pozadine navbar-a, dodajte .bg-light. Za tamnu pozadinu dodajte .bg-dark, a za svijetloplavu pozadinu dodajte

.bg-primary.

Evo kako bi to trebalo izgledati:

.bg-dark{ background-color:#343a40!important } .bg-primary{ background-color:#007bff!important }

Zaglavlje

Pokušajmo stvoriti izgled zaglavlja.

Ovdje želimo biti sigurni da zaglavlje zauzima visinu prozora, pa ćemo upotrijebiti malo JQuerykoda.

Prvo stvorite datoteku s imenom main.jsi uključite je uindex.htmldatotekaprije završne bodyoznake:

U main.jsfile insert this a little code of JQuery:

$(document).ready(function(){ $('.header').height($(window).height()); })

It’d be pretty cool if we set a nice background image to the header:

/*header style*/ .header{ background-image: url('../images/headerback.jpg'); background-attachment: fixed; background-size: cover; background-position: center; }

Let’s add an overlay to make the header look a bit more professional:

Add this to your index.html file:

Then, add this to your main.css file:

.overlay{ position: absolute; min-height: 100%; min-width: 100%; left: 0; top: 0; background: rgba(244, 244, 244, 0.79); }

Now we have to add a description inside the header.

To wrap our description we’re first going to create a div and give it a class .container.

.container is a Bootstrap class that will help you to wrap your content and make your layout more responsive:

Then, add another div which will contain the description.

Hello ,Welcome To My official Website

cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

See more

We’ll give it a class of .description and add the .text-center class to make sure the content is placed in the center of the page.

Buttons

Add the class .btn btn-outline-secondary to the button element. there are many other Bootstrap classes for buttons.

Check some examples:

CodePen Embed — buttons in Bootstrap 4

Buttons Button primary Button default Button danger Button info Button warning Button dark Button success Buttons…codepen.io

Here’s how the styling for the .description looks in the main.css file:

.description{ position: absolute; top: 30%; margin: auto; padding: 2em; } .description h1{ color:#F97300 ; } .description p{ color:#666; font-size: 20px; width: 50%; line-height: 1.5; } .description button{ border:1px solid #F97300; background:#F97300; color:#fff; }

After all of that, our header will look like this:

Cool isn’t :).

About Section

In this section, we will use some Bootstrap Grid to divide the section into two parts.

To start our grid, we have to assign the.rowclass to the parent div.

The first section will be on the left and will contain a picture, the second section will be on the right and contain a description.

Each div will take up 6 columns — that means half of the section. Remember that a grid is divided into 12 columns.

In the first div on the left side:

 // left side  S.Web Developer 

After adding the the HTML elements on the right-side, the structure of the code will look like this:

 S.Web Developer 

D.John

ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipisicing elit, sed do eiusmod tempor incididunt ut labore et dolore magna aliqua. Ut enim ad minim veniam, quis nostrud exercitation ullamco laboris nisi ut aliquip ex ea commodo consequat. Duis aute irure dolor in reprehenderit in voluptate velit esse cillum dolore eu fugiat nulla pariatur. Excepteur sint occaecat cupidatat non proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Here’s how I’ve made it look:

.about{ margin: 4em 0; padding: 1em; position: relative; } .about h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .about img{ height: 100%; width: 100%; border-radius: 50% } .about span{ display: block; color: #888; position: absolute; left: 115px; } .about .desc{ padding: 2em; border-left:4px solid #10828C; } .about .desc h3{ color: #10828C; } .about .desc p{ line-height:2; color:#888; }

Portfolio Section

Now, let’s move onto the next bit and make a portfolio section that will contain a gallery.

The structure of our HTML code for the Portfolio section looks like this:

Portfolio

Adding .img-fluid to each image to makes it responsive.

Each item in our gallery will take up 4 columns (remember, col-md-4 for medium devices, col-lg-4 for large devices). That’s equal to 33.33333%on large devices such desktops and large tablets, and 12 columns on a small device (like iPhone, mobile devices) will take up 100% of the container.

Let’s add some styling to our Gallery:

/*Portfolio*/ .portfolio{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .portfolio h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .portfolio img{ height: 15rem; width: 100%; margin: 1em; }

Blog Section

Cards

Cards in Bootstrap 4 make blog design so much easier. The cards are appropriate for articles and posts.

To create a card, we use the class .cardand assign it to a div element,

The card class contains many features:

  • .card-header: define the card header
  • .card-body:for the card body
  • .card-title: the title of the card
  • card-footer:define the footer of the card.
  • .card-image: for the card’s image

So, our website’s HTML should now look something like this:

Blog

Post Title

proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Read more

Post Title

proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Read more

Post Title

proident, sunt in culpa qui officia deserunt mollit anim id est laborum.

Read more

We need to add some CSS style to the cards:

.blog{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .blog h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .blog .card{ box-shadow: 0 0 20px #ccc; } .blog .card img{ width: 100%; height: 12em; } .blog .card-title{ color:#F97300; } .blog .card-body{ padding: 1em; }

After adding the Blog section to our website, the design should now look something like this:

Cool isn’t it? ?

Team Section

In this section we will use the grid system to distribute even space between images. Each image takes up 3 columns (.col-md-3) of the container — that equals 25% of the total space.

Our HTML structure:

Our Team

Sara Manager Chris S.enginner Layla Front End Developer J.Jirard Team Manger

And let’s add some style:

.team{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .team h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .team .item{ position: relative; } .team .des{ background: #F97300; color: #fff; text-align: center; border-bottom-left-radius: 93%; transition:.3s ease-in-out; }

Adding an overlay to the image on-hover using animation would be nice ?.

To make this effect , add the styles below to main.css file:

.team .item:hover .des{ height: 100%; background:#f973007d; position: absolute; width: 89%; padding: 5em; top: 0; border-bottom-left-radius: 0; }

Super cool! ?

Contact Form

The Contact Form is the last section to add, then we are done ?.

The Contact Form section will contain a form through which visitors can send an email or give feedback. We will use some Bootstrap classes to make the design beautiful and responsive.

Like Bootstrap 3, Bootstrap 4 also uses the .form-control class for input fields, but there are some new features added — like switching from .input-group-addon(deprecated) to .input-group-prepend(to use icons as labels ).

See Bootstrap 4 document for more information. In our Contact form we will wrap each input between a div that has the class.form-group.

The index.html file now looks something like this:

Get in Touch

Contact section’styles :

main.css

.contact-form{ margin: 6em 0; position: relative; } .contact-form h1{ padding:2em 1px; color: #F97300; } .contact-form .right{ max-width: 600px; } .contact-form .right .btn-secondary{ background: #F97300; color: #fff; border:0; } .contact-form .right .form-control::placeholder{ color: #888; font-size: 16px; }

Fonts

I think default fonts are ugly so we are going to use the Google Font API, and we’ll choose Raleway which is a nice font and appropriate to our template.

Add this link into your main.css file:

@import url('//fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Raleway');

and set the global style to HTML and heading tags:

html,h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6,a{ font-family: "Raleway"; }

Scroll Effect

The last thing missing is scroll effect. Here, we’ll have to use some JQuery. Don’t worry️ if you are not familiar with it, just add this code into yourmain.jsfile:

$(".navbar a").click(function(){ $("body,html").animate({ scrollTop:$("#" + $(this).data('value')).offset().top },1000) })

and add a data-value attribute to each navbar link:

  • About
  • Portfolio
  • Blog
  • Team
  • Contact
  • Set an id attribute to each section.

    Napomena : idDa bi data-valuepomicanje radilo, mora biti identično atributu na poveznici navbar:

    Zaključak

    Bootstrap 4 izvrsna je opcija za izradu vaše web aplikacije. Pruža visoku kvalitetu UI elemenata i lako ga je prilagoditi, integrirati i koristiti. Također će vam pomoći da na svoje web mjesto uvrstite reakciju, pružajući tako svojim korisnicima vrhunsko korisničko iskustvo.

    Datoteke projekta pronaći ćete na GitHubu.

    Ako su vam potrebne neke teme i predlošci Bootstrapa, možete pogledati BootstrapBay, oni imaju neke izvrsne proizvode

    Pogledajte moj Bootstrap tečaj da biste naučili Bootstrap 4:

    Bootstrap 4 pad tečaja: osnovno za napredovanje | Rekao je Hayani | Dijeljenje vještina

    U ovoj ćete klasi učiti bootstrap verziju 4, CSS okvir za izgradnju fleksibilnih predložaka i ... skl.sh