Što su računalne mreže i kako ih zapravo razumjeti

Bez obzira jeste li novi u svijetu razvoja ili već dugo gradite stvari - ili čak ako ste osoba koja samo voli računala i svakodnevno koristi internet - morate upoznati osnove umrežavanja, a posebno Računalne mreže.

Ako volite više kopati po poslužiteljima, njihovoj sigurnosti i načinu povezivanja s vašim poslužiteljima s udaljenog klijenta, sve to zahtijeva određeno znanje o računalnim mrežama i njihovim komponentama. U ovom sam članku pokušao pokriti većinu tema koje se tiču ​​računalnih mreža.

Također, odavde ću "računalne mreže" nazivati ​​jednostavno "mrežama".

Pogledajmo prvo moju radnu definiciju računalnih mreža:

Računalne mreže mogu se definirati kao razmjena mrežnih paketa između računalnih strojeva širom svijeta uz pomoć podatkovnih linija poput žičanih kabela, optičkih vlakana itd.

Internet je vrsta računalne mreže. Sorta.

Pogledat ćemo neke često korištene pojmove i komponente i kako funkcioniraju u računalnoj mreži, od kojih su neki u gornjem dijagramu.

Uobičajeni pojmovi u računalnim mrežama

Čvorovi

Čvorovi u računalnim mrežama znače bilo koji računalni uređaj kao što su računala, mobiteli, tableti itd. Koji pokušavaju slati i primati mrežne pakete putem mreže na drugi sličan uređaj.

Mrežni paketi

Mrežni paketi nisu ništa drugo do informacije ili jedinice podataka koje izvorni čvor želi poslati / primiti na / s odredišnog čvora. U ovom članku svi mrežni paketi / paketi podataka imaju isto značenje.

Internetski protokol (IP-ovi)

Razmislite da želite prijatelju poslati rođendanski poklon na njegov rođendan, gdje ćete ga poslati? Na njihovu adresu, zar ne?

Isti je slučaj ovdje. Rani informatičari željeli su identificirati računala na internetu s jedinstvenim brojem, nešto poput današnjih telefonskih brojeva. Dakle, smislili su koncept TCP / IP.

IP računalnog uređaja adresa je tog uređaja u računalnoj mreži. Tehnički, to je 32-bitni broj koji koristi uređaje u mreži. Sva komunikacija s uređaja u toj mreži naprijed-natrag odvijat će se u smislu njegove IP adrese.

Uzmite u obzir da datoteku prenosite na bilo koju web lokaciju ili recite na Google pogon.

Govoreći na najnižoj razini mrežne komunikacije, vaša se datoteka pretvara u pakete i svaki paket sa sobom ima adresu odredišnog čvora koja nije ništa drugo do IP adresa.

Na višoj su razini IP adrese klasificirane u dvije vrste:

  • IPv4 : IPv4 adrese su 32 bita (četiri bajta) kako je objašnjeno u definiciji. Primjer IPv4 adrese bio bi 104.244.42.129 što je IPv4 adresa twitter.com .Oni su stabilni za upotrebu i stoga se danas koriste za prepoznavanje strojeva u svijetu.
  • IPv6 : IPv6 adrese prilično su nove u svijetu i u osnovi su osam heksadecimalnih brojeva odvojenih znakom ":". Primjer IPv6 adrese bio bi 2001: 0cb8: 85a3: 0000: 0000: 8a2e: 0370: 7334 . Oni su nestabilni i stoga se još uvijek ne koriste široko. Web još uvijek koristi IPv4 zbog svoje stabilnosti i nema procjene kada ćemo početi koristiti IPv6, jer za sada nije stabilan.

IPv4 klasificiran je u pet klasa pod nazivom Klasa A, B, C, D, E.

Klasa A : Kao što je prikazano u trećem stupcu gornje slike, za IP adrese klase A prvi bit prvog okteta IP adrese je konstantan i iznosi „0“.

Drugi stupac označava mrežne bitove i hostove bitove odgovarajuće klase IP adrese. Razmotrimo u slučaju IP adrese klase A, imamo sljedeću formulu:

Broj mreža / podmreža = 2^(# of network bits).

Broj važećih hostova u svakoj podmreži = 2^(# of host bits) — 2.

Broj mrežnih bitova i bitova hosta određuje se prema zadanoj maski podmreže klase IP adrese.

Zadana maska ​​podmreže za IP adrese klase A je 255.0.0.0, odnosno 11111111.00000000.0000000.00000000`. Dakle, za klasu A:

Mrežni bitovi = 8, a hostovi bitovi = 24.

Budući da su mrežni bitovi = 8 , hostovi bitovi = 24 , njihov zbroj mora biti 32, jer su IPv4 adrese 32 bita. No, budući da koristimo jedan bit (prvi bit u prvom oktetu) za identifikaciju klase:

Broj korisnih mrežnih bitova = Broj mrežnih bitova - Broj konstantnih bitova = 8–1 = 7

Dakle, broj mogućih mreža u klasi A =2^7 — 2 = 126 i,

Broj mogućih hostova (tj. Uređaja koji se mogu povezati na mrežu) po mreži u klasi A = 2^24-2 = 16277214.

E sad, ovdje, za klasu A, možete se zapitati zašto sam od broja mogućih mreža oduzeo dodatnih 2. To je zato što je za razred A 127.xyz bio rezerviran. Za ostale razrede koristi se uobičajena formula.

Dakle, IP adrese u klasi A kreću se od 1.x.x.xdo 126.x.x.x.

Klasa B: slučaj je sličan klasi B. Jedina razlika je u tome što su 2 bita prvog okteta konstantni (10) i oni identificiraju klasu IP adrese koja je klasa B. Svi ostali izračuni su isti, i ne spominjem njih ovdje jer ih je lako dohvatiti s gornjeg stola. Oni se kreću od 128.0.x.xdo 191.255.x.x.

Klasa C : 3 bita prvog okteta su konstantni (110) i klasificiraju klasu kao klasu C. Oni se kreću od 192.0.0.xdo 223.255.255.x.

Klasa D i E : Razred D i E koriste se u eksperimentalne svrhe.

IPv4 adrese uglavnom su dvije vrste:

  • Statički : Ove su IP adrese one koje vremenom ostaju stalne za uređaj. Primjeri toga su udaljeni poslužitelji koje koristimo za hostiranje naših aplikacija, web stranica itd., Gdje koristimo ssh klijent za ssh do našeg poslužitelja.
  • Dinamično : Općenito su to IP adrese koje se dodjeljuju zajedničkom računalu u internetskoj mreži. Pokušajte isključiti usmjerivač i vidjet ćete promjenu IP adrese računala! (Ali tek nakon čitanja ovog članka?). Sad možda razmišljate tko dodjeljuje ove IP adrese? To je DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) poslužitelj koji je ukratko objašnjen u ovom članku.

Napomena : Uređaj može imati više IP adresa istovremeno. Razmotrite uređaj povezan na dvije mreže, wifi kao i bilo koju LAN mrežu - imat će dvije IP adrese. To implicira da su IP adrese dodijeljene sučeljima, a ne izravno računalu.

U redu, zasad je dobro. Nastavimo.

Usmjerivači

As its name suggests, a Router is a hardware component that takes care of routing packets. It determines which node the packet came from and which destination node the sender node want to send it to. No computer knows where other computers are located, and packets are not sent to every computer. A Router identifies the destination node address to which a network packet has to be sent and it forwards it to the desired address.

Routers have a specific “Routing Protocol” which defines the format in which they exchange data with another router or networking nodes. In other words, routing protocol defines how routers communicate with each other.

Routers build up a “Routing Table” which identifies the most optimized paths to be taken in the network while sending packets.

Technically, a routing table is just a table with the list of “routes” from one router to other. Each route consists of the address of the other routers/nodes in the network and how to reach them.

Routing table:
Destination Gateway Genmask Flags Metric Refs Ifacedefault 192.168.0.1 0.0.0.0 UG 1024 233 eth0192.168.0.0 * 255.255.255.0 UC 0 0 wlan0192.168.0.0 * 255.255.255.0 UH 0 2 eth0

Above is an example of a routing table. The key points to take a note of here are:

  • Destination: This is the IP address of the destination node. It indicates where the network data packet should end up.
  • Gateway: Gateway is the component which connects two networks. Consider that you have a router connected to another router. Each of the routers has devices connected to it. So, the address of the last router (say R1 here) after which the network packet enters the other network (say R2’s network) is called the gateway. Usually, the gateways are nothing but the routers. Let me give one more example: say that your room is one network and your sibling’s room next to yours is another network, then the “door” between the two rooms can be considered the gateway. People sometimes refer to the “routers” as the gateway, because, that’s what they are, “a gateway to another network”.
  • Genmask/Subnet mask: It is nothing but the net/subnet mask. A subnet mask is a number which when combined with an IP address allows you to divide the IP space into smaller and smaller chunks for use in both physical and logical networks. The explanation of how subnet mask calculations happen is beyond the scope of this article.
  • Flags: Different flags have a different meaning. For example, in the first route, “U” in “UG” means the route is UP, whereas “G” in “UG” means GATEWAY. Since the route signifies a GATEWAY, it is a door to the other network. Whenever we send any data through this route, it gets sent to another network.
  • Iface (Network interface): Network interface refers to the network that the route defined in the routing table is having the destination computer in. That is if you are connected to Wifi, then it would be “wlan” and when you are connected to a LAN, then it would be “eth”.

So this is the way a router works, with the help of Routing Protocol and Routing Table.

All good up to now. But, you must be thinking —

“Okay! But hey, we are learning about components here. I need to stitch them together and get to know how the internet works.”

Cool! Some more terms and you will have a proper understanding of how everything goes.

Network Address Translation (NAT)

Network address translation is a technique used by routers to provide internet service to more devices with less usage of public IPs. Thus, a router is assigned a single IP address by the ISP and it assigns the private IPs to all the devices connected to it. NAT helps the ISPs provide internet access to more consumers.

Thus, if you are connected to the router of your house, your public IP will be visible to the world, but the private one will not. Whatever network packets are communicated will be addressed by your public IP (that is the public IP assigned to the router).

Consider the above figure. Let’s say that in your home network, you are trying to access medium.com (remote static IP: 72.14.204.147), from your computer (private IP: 192.168.1.100).

So, for your computer, the connection looks like:

192.168.1.100:3764172.14.204.147:80 .

“37641” is the random port number assigned by NAT router to your device/computer. (When there is network communication between daemons running on different ports on a computer, the respective port is used by NAT). Each outbound connection gets an assigned port by the NAT router.

The connection is established in NAT like:

Private IP |PrivatePort |PublicIP |PublicPort |Remote |RemotePort
------------- ------------ --------- ----------- ------- -----------
192.168.1.100 | 37641 | 104.244.42.129 | 59273 | 72.14.204.147 | 80

But, since the outside world of the network doesn’t know about your private address, the connection looks like the following to medium.com:

104.244.42.129:5927372.14.204.147:80 .

That way, we achieve assigning a higher number of IP addresses without wasting many public IPs.

Now, when medium.com sends the response back to 104.244.42.129:59273 , it travels all the way to your home router which then looks up for the respective private IP and private port and redirects the packet to your device/computer.

Note: NAT is a generalized concept. NAT can be achieved as 1:1, 1:N where 1, N are the number of IP addresses in the network. A technique called as “IP Masquerading” is a 1:N NAT.

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)

Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol or DHCP is responsible for assigning dynamic IP addresses to the hosts. The DHCP server is maintained by the ISP or previous router if there is a chain of routers to reach the host.

Thus, allocation of IP addresses is carried out by the DHCP server. Generally, ISP maintains a DHCP server and the routers in our houses get assigned a public IP from the DHCP server.

Note: Whenever a router or say a DHCP server maintained by an ISP or router restarts, the IP address allocation starts again and devices are allocated IPs which are different than the previous ones.

Domain Name System/Server

We have already discussed that any machine is identified by the IP address.

Okay, so you are running a web server on your localhost on your machine. If you have dug around in the hosts on any Linux machine, you would have encountered something like this:

127.0.0.1 localhost255.255.255.255 broadcasthost::1 localhost

which means that even if you type 127.0.0.1 in your browser’s URL bar, it would mean the same as localhost .

Similar to the above, the websites you use daily are web servers running on some remote instance/node having a static IP address. So, typing that IP address in your browser’s URL bar will take you to the website?

Yes, surely it will. But, are you a superhuman to remember the IP addresses of thousands of sites?

NO.

Thus, there come the domains that we use, say medium.com, twitter.com, behance.net, codementor.io, etc.

A Domain Name Server is a server having huge records of domain name mapping IP addresses which searches for the domain input and returns the respective IP address of the machine on which the website you want to access is hosted.

How does DNS work actually?

  1. DNS is managed by your ISP (internet service provider).
  2. When we type an URL in the address bar, the data packets travel through your router, maybe multiple routers to your ISP where your DNS server is present.
  3. DNS server present at the ISP looks up for the domain in its database. If an entry is found, then it returns it.
  4. If any entry is not found in its primary database that it maintains, the DNS server will travel through the internet to another DNS server maintained by another ISP and check if the entry is available in that another DNS server’s database. Along with returning the IP address taken from another DNS, it will update the primary database with this new entry also.
  5. Thus, sometimes (very rarely) a DNS server may have to traverse to multiple DNS servers to get a matching entry.
  6. If after traversing a lot of DNS servers across the internet, it doesn’t get a matching entry, then the DNS server throws an error indicating that the “domain name is invalid or doesn’t exist”.

Note:

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is a consortium (a non-profit corporation) that manages the assignment of domain names and IP address ranges on behalf of the community.

A domain is divided into three parts as shown in the following figure.

  1. Protocol: The protocol used to access the website, for example, HTTP, HTTPS, etc.
  2. Domain name: The main domain name in our domain. This can be anything that is available as per the ICANN registry.
  3. Domain extension: This is one which is considered important while buying a domain. Generally, it is classified into two types:
  • Generic Top-level Domains (gTLDs): This includes most popular domain extensions like .com, .org, .net, .edu, .co, etc.
  • Country Code Top-level Domains(ccTLDs): These indicate that the domain is related to the country code specified in the domain extension. For example, “.in” indicates that the website is originated from India. Also, some of the ccTLDs require that the person purchasing the domain should be from the same country. Most of the small country code extensions are not searchable from outside that country.

Internet Service Providers (ISPs)

Internet Service Providers are the companies that provide everyone Internet. The article you are reading now is because of the internet that your ISP provides you.

ISPs provide internet, handle routing your requests to the correct destination, resolve domain names with the help of DNS cache that they maintain, and handle all this network infrastructure which enables us to use the internet.

ISP is a hierarchical thing working across the internet. There are certain types of ISPs namely Tier 1, Tier 2, Tier 3 ISPs.

  • Tier 1 ISPs are the ones which connect major networks on the internet. Consider them as the major highways of the internet. They are connected to almost every network on the internet. Also, they provide internet access to the Tier 2 ISPs. ex. CERFNet, UUNet, PSINet. They are also called Network Service Providers. These ISPs are connected to each other by means of large cables going beneath the sea.
  • The Tier 2 (Regional) ISPs are the ones who primarily provide Internet services to organizations, consumers (that is “us”) or the Tier 3 ISPs. The internet connection you are using is from a Tier 2 ISP. However, organizations can also get Internet access from Tier 1 ISPs.
  • Tier 3 (Local) ISPs are just like Tier 2. It’s just one more level of hierarchy out there that purchases bandwidth from Tier 2 ISP and sells it to consumers.

The traffic that goes through your router also goes through Tier 3 (if present), Tier 2, and ultimately through Tier 1 ISPs all the way to another network.

Woot Woot! I am happy that you are still with me. We will put all the things together now.

Putting all of the above things together

Up until now, we have learned about all the components needed to make everything work. Now, we will glue them together.

Let’s summarize all the things we’ve learned:

  • When a computer/device comes online, it gets a private IP assigned by the router. The router gets a public IP from the ISP.
  • Other devices in the network are allocated unique private IPs.
  • ISPs are the ones who are present across the world and are connected to each other. They sell Internet services to the regional and local ISPs, from whom we, the consumers, purchase Internet.
  • Thus, when a device tries to establish a network connection with some other device on some other network, it does it with the identity of its gateway (the router). The router then maps the private IP and private port number with the public IP and random high integer public port number.
  • The router then sends the packets to the desired destination where some other router or gateway does the same thing as the previous router and analyses which computer/device that packet came from.
  • The remote computer/device responds by sending the destination as the public IP and public port of the router.
  • The router then again checks for the private IP and private port and forwards the network packets.

So, this is how the Internet aka A kind of Computer Network using TCP/IP protocol works.

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