Najbolji vodiči za HTML i HTML5

Označni jezik HyperText (HTML) je označni jezik koji se koristi za izradu mrežnih dokumenata i temelj je većine web stranica danas. Označni jezik poput HTML-a to nam omogućuje

  • stvoriti poveznice s drugim dokumentima,
  • strukturirati sadržaj u našem dokumentu i
  • sadržaju našeg dokumenta pripisati kontekst i značenje.

HTML dokument ima dva aspekta. Sadrži strukturirane informacije (Markup) i tekstualne poveznice (HyperText) na druge dokumente. Naše stranice strukturiramo pomoću HTML elemenata. Oni su konstrukcije jezika koji pruža strukturu i značenje u našem dokumentu za preglednik i element povezuje s drugim dokumentima putem Interneta.

Internet je izvorno stvoren za pohranu i prezentaciju statičnih (nepromjenjivih) dokumenata. Gore opisani aspekti HTML-a savršeno su se vidjeli u ovim dokumentima kojima je nedostajao sav dizajn i stil. Predstavili su strukturirane informacije koje su sadržavale poveznice s drugim dokumentima.

HTML5 je najnovija verzija ili specifikacija HTML-a. Konzorcij za World Wide Web (W3C) organizacija je odgovorna za razvoj standarda za World Wide Web, uključujući one za HTML. Kako web stranice i web aplikacije postaju sve složenije, W3C ažurira HTML standarde.

HTML5 uvodi mnoštvo semantičkih elemenata. Iako smo razgovarali o tome kako je HTML pomogao da naš dokument dobije značenje, tek su HTML5-ovi, uvođenjem semantičkih elemenata, ostvarili svoj potencijal.

Jednostavan primjer HTML dokumenta

   Page Title   

My First Heading

My first paragraph.

! DOCTYPE html: Definira ovaj dokument kao HTML5

html: korijenski element HTML stranice

head: Element sadrži meta informacije o dokumentu

title: Element navodi naslov dokumenta

body: Element sadrži vidljivi sadržaj stranice

h1: Element definira veliki naslov

p: Element definira odlomak

Vodiči za započinjanje s HTML-om i HTML5-om

Najbolje mjesto za početak učenja HTML-a je dvodasovni udžbenik za uvođenje u HTML FreeCodeCampa.

Zatim, ako se osjećate avanturistički, imamo čitav 12-satni tečaj koji detaljno pokriva HTML, HTML5 i CSS.

Struktura stranice

Da biste stvorili svoje stranice u HTML, morate znati kako strukturirati stranicu u HTML. U osnovi, strukturiranje stranice slijedi donji redoslijed:

   Title of the Page     

1 - Izjava se uvijek mora prva pojaviti na HTMLstranici i navodi pregledniku koja se verzija jezika koristi. U ovom slučaju radimo s HTML5.

2 - Oznake i označavaju web pregledniku gdje HTMLkod započinje i završava.

3 - Oznake and sadrže informacije o web mjestu, na primjer: stil, meta-oznake, skripte itd.

4 - Oznake i govore pregledniku kako glasi naslov stranice. Naslov se može vidjeti identificiranjem kartice u vašem internetskom pregledniku. Tekst koji je definiran između ovih oznaka ujedno je i tekst koji tražilice koriste kao naslov kada predstavljaju stranice u rezultatima pretraživanja.

5 - Između i oznake sadržaja stranice se nalazi, što je ono što se prikazuje u pregledniku.

Promjene u HTML5

Uvođenje semantičkih oznaka

Umjesto da se koristi za svaki drugi spremnik, postoji nekoliko semantičkih (ove oznake pomažu čitačima zaslona koje koriste osobe s oštećenim vidom) kao što su . Stoga je preporučljivo koristiti ove oznake umjesto generičkih .

HTML elementi

Elementi su gradivni blokovi HTML-a koji opisuju strukturu i sadržaj web stranice. Oni su "Markup" dio jezika za označavanje HyperText (HTML).

HTML sintaksa koristi kutne zagrade (””) da zadrži ime HTML elementa. Elementi obično imaju početnu i završnu oznaku i daju informacije o sadržaju koji sadrže. Razlika između njih dvije je u tome što završna oznaka ima kosu crtu prema naprijed.

Evo primjera korištenja elementa p (

This is a paragraph.

Opening and closing tags should match, otherwise the browser may display content in an unexpected way.

Original text


XKCD comic showing the text

Self-closing Elements

Some HTML elements are self-closing, meaning they don’t have a separate closing tag. Self-closing elements typically insert something into your document.

An example is the br element (

), which inserts a line break in text. Formerly, self-closing tags had the forward slash inside them (

HTML Element Functionality

There are many available HTML elements. Here’s a list of some of the functions they perform:

  • give information about the web page itself (the metadata)
  • structure the content of the page into sections
  • embed images, videos, audio clips, or other multimedia
  • create lists, tables, and forms
  • give more information about certain text content
  • link to stylesheets which have rules about how the browser should display the page
  • add scripts to make a page more interactive and dynamic

Nesting HTML Elements

You can nest elements within other elements in an HTML document. This helps define the structure of the page. Just make sure the tags close from the inside-most element first.

Correct:

This is a paragraph that contains a span element.

Incorrect:

This is a paragraph that contains a span element.

Block-level and Inline Elements

Elements come in two general categories, known as block-level and inline. Block-level elements automatically start on a new line while inline elements sit within surrounding content.

Elements that help structure the page into sections, such as a navigation bar, headings, and paragraphs, are typically block-level elements. Elements that insert or give more information about content are generally inline, such as links or images.

The HTML Element

There’s an element that’s used to contain the other markup for an HTML document. It’s also known as the “root” element because it’s the parent of the other HTML elements and the content of a page.

Here’s an example of a page with a head element, a body element, and one paragraph:

I'm a paragraph

The HEAD Element

This is the container for processing information and metadata for an HTML document.

The BODY Element

This is a container for the displayable content of an HTML document.

...

The P Element

Creates a paragraph, perhaps the most common block level element.

...

The A(Link) Element

Creates a hyperlink to direct visitors to another page or resource.

...

Images in HTML

You can define images by using the tag. It does not have a closing tag since it can contain only attributes. To insert an image you define the source and an alternative text which is displayed when the image can not be rendered.

src - This attribute provides the url to the image present either on your P.C./Laptop or to be included from some other website. Remember the link provided should not be broken otherwise the image will not be produced on your webpage.

alt - This attribute is used to overcome the problem of broken image or incapability of your browser to produce image on webpage. This attribute, as the name suggests, provides an “Alternative” to an image which is some ‘TEXT’ describing the image.

Example

To define height and width of an image you can use the height and width attribute:

You can also define border thickness (0 means no border):

Align an image:

You are also able to use styles within a style attribute:

How to use links in HTML

In HTML you can use the tag to create a link. For example you can write freeCodeCamp to create a link to freeCodeCamp’s website.

Links are found in nearly all web pages. Links allow users to click their way from page to page.

HTML links are hyperlinks. You can click on a link and jump to another document.

When you move the mouse over a link, the mouse arrow will turn into a little hand.

Note: A link does not have to be text. It can be an image or any other HTML element.

In HTML, links are defined with the tag:

link text

Example

Visit our site for tutorials

The href attribute specifies the destination address (//www.freecodecamp.org) of the link.

The link text is the visible part (Visit our site for tutorials).

Clicking on the link text will send you to the specified address.

How to Use Lists in HTML

Lists are used to specify a set of consecutive items or related information in a well formed and semantic way, such as a list of ingredients or a list of procedural steps.

HTML markup has three different types of lists - ordered, unordered and description lists.

Ordered Lists

An ordered list is used to group a set of related items, in a specific order. This list is created with

    tag. Each list item is surrounded with
  1. tag.

    Code
    1. Mix ingredients
    2. Bake in oven for an hour
    3. Allow to stand for ten minutes
    Example
    1. Mix ingredients
    2. Bake in oven for an hour
    3. Allow to stand for ten minutes

    Unordered Lists

    An unordered list is used to group a set of related items, in no particular order. This list is created with

      tag. Each list item is surrounded with
    • tag.

      Code
      • Chocolate Cake
      • Black Forest Cake
      • Pineapple Cake

      Example

      • Chocolate Cake
      • Black Forest Cake
      • Pineapple Cake

      Description Lists

      A description list is used to specify a list of terms and their descriptions. This list is created with

      tag. Each list item is surrounded with
      tag.

      Code
      Bread
      A baked food made of flour.
      Coffee
      A drink made from roasted coffee beans.
      Output

      Bread A baked food made of flour. Coffee A drink made from roasted coffee beans.

      Styling List

      You can also control the style of the list. You can use list-style property of lists. Your list can be bullets, squares, in Roman numerals, or can be images if you want.

      list-style property is shorthand for list-style-type, list-style-position, list-style-image.